双语浏览:遇到难题解决不了?可以先睡一觉

2020-02-11 16:42作者:admin来源:未知>次阅读

It is often said that the best way to get to the bottom of a hard problem is to sleep on it. But how accurate is this advice?

关于如何追根究底找到解决题目的手段,清淡有个远大的说法 —— 最益先睡上一觉,也许会找到解决方案。不过这个说法到底有几分可信度呢?

杏耀

A new study forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science may have the answer.

一项立即在《心思科学期刊》刊登的最新钻研通知也许能给出答案。

A team of researchers led by Kristin Sanders of Northwestern University designed an experiment to test whether cueing music associated with unsolved brain teasers during sleep increased people's ability to solve those same brain teasers the next morning. Fascinatingly, they found that it did.

美国西北大学克里斯汀·桑德斯领导的一组钻研人员设计了一个实验。在测试者寝休期间,播放与尚未解决脑筋急转曲有关的挑示音笑,钻研他们在次日清早解决同样题目的能力是否有所挑高。实验终局令人惊喜,测试者次日解决题目的能力实在得到了挑高。

"Numerous studies in humans and other animals demonstrate better memory after sleep compared with a similar time awake," state the researchers. "Sleep-related memory processes not only strengthen but also can optimize, organize, and transform information."

钻研人员称:“按照对人类和其他行物的大量钻研,在相通的时间段,寝休之后的记忆力比醒悟时凶果更佳。与寝休有关的记忆形成过程,不光能在寝休中得到强化的凶果,还首到结构、优化、和转换新闻的作用。”

To arrive at this conclusion, the researchers invited 57 students at Northwestern University to participate in a three-day, two-night study. On the first day, participants were presented with a series of difficult spatial and verbal puzzles. Here is one example. (The answer is provided at the end of this article.)

为了证实这个结论,钻研人员邀请美国西北大学57名门生参与三天两夜的实验钻研。第镇日,测试者必要解决一系列的空间和文字难题。举个例子:(答案于本文文末)

On a wall outside a closet door are three standard on/off switches. One (and only one) controls a light bulb inside the light-tight, well-insulated closet. The other two switches do nothing. You can only open the closet door once, and cannot change any switches after the door is open (or re-closed, for that matter). Damaging or disassembling the door, walls, or switches is against the rules. Within these constraints, how can you determine with certainty which switch controls the light bulb? — Sanders et al. (2019)

壁橱门表的墙上有三个同样规格的标准开关。其中有且仅有一个开关限制壁橱内的一个灯泡,壁橱密不透光、十足阻隔。其余两个开关不首任何作用。你有且仅有一次机会可以张开壁橱门,确定你选择的开关是否是限制该灯泡。门开之后或重新关闭前,都不能更改任何开关。不准损毁或拆卸壁橱门、墙以及开关,否则作违规处理。在这些收敛条件下,你是如何确定灯泡的开关呢?—— 桑德森等(2019)

Forty-two puzzles like the one presented above were used in the experiment. Importantly, each puzzle was paired with a sound clip. The experimenters encouraged participants to try to solve the puzzles as well as to remember the different sound clips associated with each puzzle. Participants worked through the brain teasers until a total of six puzzles remained unsolved.

实验中测试者需解决42道相通上述的智力题。值得一挑的是,每个智力题都配备一个声音文件。钻研人员勉励测试者在解决智力题的同时,尽也许地记住与每个智力题有关的声音片段。末了测试者成功解决这些题目,但还有六道尚未找到解决手段。

Next, participants took home a sleep monitoring device and sound cueing system that gathered data and played music while they slept. For instance, every time the machine detected slow-wave sleep(i.e., the type of sleep in which dreaming and memory re-organization is thought to occur), the machine cued music associated with some,商业新闻 but not all, of the unsolved brain teasers.

随后,测试者带回家一个寝休监测设备和一个声音挑示编制设备。在他们寝休期间,设备可搜集与寝休有关的数据以及播放音笑。例如,当机器检测到慢波寝休时(该寝休状态被认为梦和记忆会显现重组的情况),机器便会播放片面与尚未解决的脑筋急转曲有关的声音片段。

The next morning, participants were asked to try to figure out the puzzles they were not able to solve the day before. The experiment was repeated later that day and night, and participants again attempted to solve the unsolved puzzles the next morning.

次日早上,再请求测试者解决前镇日尚未解决的智力题,同时在当天重复前镇日的实验;到第三天早上,测试者再一次解决未解决的智力题。

Over the course of the two experimental sessions, the researchers found that participants were 55 percent more likely to solve puzzles on their second try when the corresponding sound clip was surreptitiously played while they slept. They also reported that the effect was not dependent on the type of puzzle; solve rates for both spatial and verbal puzzles increased when cued during sleep.

经历这两次实验,钻研人员发现,在测试者睡觉时偷偷播放与未解智力题响答的声音片段,他们在第二次解决题目的也许性高达55%。钻研通知还指出这栽效答与智力题的类型无关,倘若测试者在寝休期间授与到有关声音的挑示,空间和文字题目的解决率都有所挑高。

The authors conclude, “By demonstrating for the first time that targeted reactivation of puzzle memories during sleep improves problem-solving the following morning, we add to a growing literature recognizing sleep as useful for both strengthening and reorganizing memory.”

钻研人员总结说:“这次实验首次表明,在寝休期间,有针对性地重新激活未解难题的记忆,有助于挑高解决该题目的能力。吾们为这方面的钻研添补了有科学按照的参考文献,让人们意识到寝休对于添强和重组记忆是有凶果的。”

So, the next time you're faced with a difficult problem, sleep on it...and play some music to remind yourself of the challenge.

所以,岂论你遇到什么难题,可以先睡一觉,同时播放一些也许挑示你解决该题目的音笑,也许醒来后你就找到晓畅决方案。

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